The Modern Period: 1750 - present

Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in 1750. In this work, Rousseau argues that the progression of the sciences and arts has caused the corruption of virtue and morality. This discourse won Rousseau fame and recognition, and it laid much of the philosophical groundwork for a second, longer work, The Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. The second discourse did not win the Academy’s prize, but like the first, it was widely read and further solidified Rousseau’s place as a significant intellectual figure. The central claim of the work is that human beings are basically good by nature, but were corrupted by the complex historical events that resulted in present day civil society.Rousseau’s praise of nature is a theme that continues throughout his later works as well, the most significant of which include his comprehensive work on the philosophy of education, the Emile, and his major work on political philosophy, The Social Contract: both published in 1762. These works caused great controversy in France and were immediately banned by Paris authorities. Rousseau fled France and settled in Switzerland, but he continued to find difficulties with authorities and quarrel with friends. The end of Rousseau’s life was marked in large part by his growing paranoia and his continued attempts to justify his life and his work. This is especially evident in his later books, The Confessions, The Reveries of the Solitary Walker, and Rousseau: Judge of Jean-Jacques.

Rousseau greatly influenced Immanuel Kant’s work on ethics. His novel Julie or the New Heloise impacted the late eighteenth century’s Romantic Naturalism movement, and his political ideals were championed by leaders of the French Revolution.

The Cold War

  • When the soviet union empire force reforms it led to their downfall.
  • the cold war lasted for 30 years.
  • What made the cold war change course dramatically?Leadership.After Stalin and Khrushchev, the soviet leadership had turned. Party bureaucrats often advanced only mediocre people to top posts. Many of these leaders then continued to hold power when their own aptitude declined with illness and age.
  • At the same time, the success of western Europe's economy pushed communism into a defensive and retreating posture throughout eastern Europe. The attraction of westurn institutions and consumer standards gained ground. Within the soviet empire itself, a free trade union movement resumed in poland, linked to the catholic church.
  • Changes in chinese policy entered in. China had separated itself from Soviet direction in the 1960s. But in 1978 the regime made a choice to participate in the world economy and to admit more market force and competitive free enterprice in the interna economy as well. There was no relaxation of political controls. But the Chinese economy now differed dramatically from that of the soviet union, and change was quickly rewarded, both with international investment and with raid growth. The soviet now had to contend notonley with China's massive population but with its superior economic performance.
  • Finally, U.S. diplomatic policy tightened. While President Jimmy Carter hoped to reduce tensions in the late 1070s. American conservatives heightened their own opposition to the Soviet Union. A new strategic arms limitation agreement was negotiated in 1979 but quickly encountered resistance in the U.S. Senate. Then came the Soviet move into Afghanistan.
  • Then, in 1980, the new, conservative president, Ronald Reagan, announced a massive increase in U.S. defense spending. The size of domestic programs declined relative to the federal buget as a whole, and some programes were cut outright but conservatives accepted a growing budget deficit in favor of the new military outlays. The president also annonced a "Reagan doctrine."
  • These moves put new pressure on the Soviets, already stretched to the limit to maintain military and global competition with the U.S., and beset with an unpopular war and new regional pressures as well, it also ended the cold war.

Barack Obama

This is a story of a man who would triumph against even the highest odds to lead a nation and restore peace to the world. He had many enemies- Racists, Republicans, anti-Christopherianists- but he persevered and in the end emerged victorious. This is the story of my hero, Barack Obama.
Our tale begins upon August 4, 1961, at Kapi'olani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, with the birth of a child of a mostly English American from Kansas, and a Kenyan. This child was destined to achieve great things, but it was not known at that time. His parents, Stanley Ann Durham and Barack Obama the elder, had been married in February of that year, and would remain together until Barack the elder went to the renowned educational institution, nearly matching Herron itself in it's glory, of Harvard University. Thus, Barack was a mixed man.
Following his parent's divorce, his mother married a male from Indonesia who at that time went by the name of Lolo Soetoro. This man was to be the stepfather of Barack, an honor beyond anything that could possibly be dreamed in this latter age by Mortal Men. They lived in Hawaii for a time, but the sands of time are ever swirling, and said time marches on, as coups rise and governments fall. So it was that a man named Suharto arose in the Country of Indonesia, only that century freed from foreign rule, and claimed the title of leader for his own. He decreed that all students of the land of Indonesia were to with all speed return to their homeland, and leave the other countries. Loath to abandon their new family member, the family of Hawaii moved with him, until they soon dwelt within the Menteng area of Jakarta, an island of Indonesia. Hence, from the ages of six until ten Obama lived under Suharto's rule, as he forbade the students from venturing forth beyond his borders. But the same restrictions did not apply to the stepsons of the students. Thus, in 1971, Obama returned to Hawaii and received his only visit there from his father.
He lived amongst his grandparents, and attended a collage predatory school, though of course inferior to the best school of all, known by those that slept in the surrounding areas as Punahou School. There did he spend his high school years. But this school was not Herron, and it's innate Darkness, being a private school, would have destroyed a lesser man. But our hero was young, and had not yet developed the sheer awesomeness which he now possesses. Thus, due to the influence of this school, Barack did what he later knew that he would regret forever: he did drugs. Alas, alas, those were Dark Days, days that I am glad that I never saw. This was caused in part by worries as he pondered his biracial heritage.
Graduating from high school, as all knew he would, Obama made his quiet way to the city of Los Angeles, upon the mainland of my country, to learn at the Occidental college. Due to his innate wisdom, he quickly excelled at every task put afore him, for the two years before he transferred to Colombia University in New York City, home of many gangs and street violence-enjoyers, the Jets and the Sharks being two rather famous examples. Here he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations, which shows his love for diplomacy rather than nuclear weapons to solve disputes, and graduated with a B.A. in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation, then at the New York Public Interest Research Group, both of which were companies in the City of New York, where he lived for four years until he teleported, using a technique that only he knows, to the city that was to become his base of operations: the Windy City of Chicago, close to the center of the world, Indianapolis and Herron it's fortress. This was, I deem, to give him a domicile neither to far removed from world affairs nor too close to the savage lands.
He took up a job as the commander-in-chief of the Developing Communities Project, and increased his staff there by multiplying the original number by thirteen, thus granting new jobs to people, a trend which was to show throughout his entire life to come. He also increased the yearly budget from 70,000 to 400,000 dollars.
Following this, in 1988, he entered the Harvard Law School and became the first Black President of the Harvard Law review, after being but a journalist for a year. This garnered national attention, as Obama's first victory against the racism that stalks this nation, ever seeking out a new victim. Obama's thoughts upon this victory evolved into a book, Dreams from My Father, that told of the mighty saga of Obama's life. I know this, yet I have not read this book. I hope to do so, though, someday, for it is certain to be one of the greatest masterpieces of all time, though it was not published until the year of my birth.
My hero then became a professor, lecturer, and senior lecturer between 1991 and 2004, during which time he also was a civil rights attorney and registered previously unregistered African-Americans to vote, which was a great deed.
Barack Obama seems to have been in danger of doing too many things at once, for he was elected to the Illinois State Senate from 1997-2004, during which he enacted many welfare and law enforcement reforms, such as racial profiling by requiring cops to record the race of all drivers that they detained.
The Great Leader then, in 2004, ran for the U.S. Senate. Competing against many other candidates, the people showed their wisdom and he won in a surprising landslide- or rather, surprising to all that underestimated him, for he quickly influenced the 9.1 million viewers that Beheld him speak at the Democratic National Convention, which led to his 72% approval rating in Illinois.
He reduced nuclear weapons, allowed people to track government spending, condemned corruption in Kenyan government, attempted to criminalize deceptive practices in voting, and enacted laws to aid in the protection of baby-murderers and peace-destroyers (we're not all perfect). But yet… ever resistance grows, as the Forces of Light are countered by the Darkness. So it was that it came to pass that our hero's law that would have forced nuclear power-plant owners to speak of radio-active leaks, thus saving the environment from catastrophe and sheer and utter ruin of large tracts of land, was overturned in the full senate, the effects of said betrayal can still be felt today.
February 10, 2007, marked the dawn of a new era: the time when the Forces of Obama would march across the lands, not electing all those that wished to usurp his seat in the Oval Office, even as Ar-Pharazon usurped the throne of Numenor, as is told in the Akalabeth. Upon this day he announced his impending victory, and the peace, Energy independence, and universal health care that would swiftly follow thereafter. Two emerged as his main foes: Hillary Clinton and John Mccain, the latter whom used 100% negative ads, many of which were outright lies, to attempt to draw attention away from his own wrongdoing. After setting several fundraising records, Barack Obama defeated both, with Joe Biden as his vice president. Thus he became the first black president of the United States.
Upon entering office, Barack Obama quickly set about improving upon George W. Bush's improvements. Thus did he issue orders to withdraw troops from Iraq, close the Guantamno Bay prison, reduced secrecy of presidential files, health-insured 4 million more little people, funded stem-cells, curbed Global Warming, expanded the definition of a hate crime to include gay people, sent forth a 787$ stimulus package, intervened in the car industry (see what a productive man he is!), outreached to the Arab World, presided over a U.N. meeting, reduced nuclear weapons in Russia and the U.S. by a third, transferred armies from Iraq to Afghanistan, and created his finest achievement: a truly monumental health care bill, the likes of which has never been seen before.
Following the boring list above, we shall take heed to those things that should have been inserted above, but instead get but, in typical boring fashion, here at the end. Barack Obama is married to Michelle Obama, and his two daughters, Malia Ann and Natasha attend the Sidwell Friend's school in Washington D.C. They have a Portuguese Water Dog named Bo. Due to the fickleness of the population, Barack Obama's popularity has fallen (curse them), despite our hero's astounding Oratory skills. He has written another book, called the Audacity of Hope, was inspired by Ghandi, and was awarded the Nobel peace prize.

The British Invasion
During the 50's, the United States of America had experienced a boom of revolutionary popular culture known as Rock and Roll. This new music- a culmination of jazz, country, blues, minstrel, and some gospel- was pioneered by such greats as Bill Haley and the Comets, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, and Roy Orbison. The first wave of rock music lost popularity during the late 50's and early 60's when Elvis got drafted and Jerry Lee's tumultuous marriage to his cousin. So what replaced the offensive and rebellious rock n' roll? Why the droning monotone stylings of Lawrence Welk and Perry Como, of course! Though most of the remaining rock stars either traveled to Britain, became Country singers (Cash and Lewis), or accepted the new style; a select group of new rockers rebelled and were king until the British Invasion. These included The Shangri-Las and The Beach Boys. Then all of a sudden in 1964, a disc jockey played The Beatles' "I want to hold your hand". it became a major hit and Capitol Records released The Beatles' first album three months ahead of schedule. Thus, began the British Invasion. Many other bands…well i don't want to say copied off of The Beatles, but without the Beatles there won't be those said bands. Anyway, the Beatles inspired a lot of young musicans to try and be awesome. The first success were The Kinks. In the early stages of Beatlemania, The Kinks recorded Long Tall Sally. This song originally by Little Richard, was also recorded by the Beatles and released just before The Kinks' version. So, the Beatles are therefore attributed to causing the British invasion. Now, I absolutely love the Beatles and have since the age of one, but the Kinks were instrumental in causing the love of British music. The next big band out of the U.K. were the Rolling Stones, who were the embodiment of the darker tones music would take in later decades. It's true that The Rolling Stones could be considered the first punk band due to their image and song writing. However, the real punks were The Who, known for wild parties, guitar smashing, and utterly chaotic live shows with explosions. There was also the genre of Mod music, think outfits like Austin Powers. Now the Who could be classified as such, but the real mods were such greats as The Small Faces and The Hollies. As well as forgotten gems as The Action and The Creation. By 1965, American music had produced radically different musicians such as Bob Dylan, The Turtles, and The Sonics. Also during this era, the rise of Garage Rock was seen. Such DIY bands as Paul Revere and the Raiders, Question Mark and the Mysterians, The 13th Floor Elevators, and the Tex-Mex influenced Sir Douglas Quintet. In '67, the garage rockers and blues rockers converged into pychedelic rock. Bands like Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother and The Holding Company, and the Jimi Hendrix Experience rose to prominence. However, the greatness of the sixties ended on December 6th, 1969 during the epic fail that was the Altamont Free Show. The Britons continued to influence rock with Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, David Bowie, Sweet, The Clash, Buzzcocks, Oasis, and the Len Price 3. If you don't know any or all of these bands, I recommend you do immediately.

Cubist Movement
Started by Pablo Picasso, this 20th century art movement changed European art and sculpture. This movement was the start of cubist, and the rendering of familiar objects as geometrical shapes.

Women's Revolution
Women's role in society began to change. Women were able to go to school and get good education. Also, women were able to have jobs and they were also able to vote. The women's revolution changed a lot of things because they were able to do things that they were never allowed to do before therefore, this was a great impact on society.



Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929. He was born Michael Luther King Jr., but later his name was changed to Martin. Could you imagine if his name was always Michael? His grandfather began his family's long known reputation as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. He served from 1914-1931, MLK's father served from then until present, and Martin Luther King Jr. served as co-pastor from 1960 until his death.
Martin Luther King Jr. attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduated from high school at fifteen(wow!), and received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College. He was one smart African-American! After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. He then enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University and received the degree in 1955. In Boston, he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments.


In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP), the leading organization of its kind in the nation.
He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott. The boycott lasted 382 days and on December 21, 1956 the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses. Blacks and whites rode buses together as equals.
In 1957, he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles! In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution.


On August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King Jr. gave a public speech in which he called for racial equality and an end to discrimination. The speech is called, I Have a Dream. Delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters,[1] the speech is often considered to be one of the greatest and most notable speeches in human history and was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century by a 1999 poll of scholars of public address.
* "In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men - yes, black men as well as white men - would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked 'insufficient funds.'"
* "It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual."
* "The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. For many of our white brothers as evidenced by their presence here today have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone."
* "I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.'"
* "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character."
* "I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood."
* "This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day."
* "Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children."
* "Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring—when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.


On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.
At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bush's 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday.[197] On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states.
Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the most active people in the civil rights movement. His legacy is still remembered today. Without him our world would still be much worse. If he were still alive today MLK would still want improvement. In a Boondocks episode he returned and gave a speech to black people about how he's disappointed. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was probably one of the most influential African-Americans to ever live on the earth.

Going Green
At the beginning of the 21st century major concerns for our environment and the planet itself rose up. Not just within the government but in society as well. After the last century of mechanized scientific experiments, industrialization, warfare, etc. much environmental commotion endangered the world. Now today more than ever people are raising awareness. People like Rachel Carson who raised awareness about pesticides and what they were doing to the animals, plants, and even us humans. Also, Jane Goodall, Al Gore, and even U.S .A’s First Lady Michelle Obama. Celebrities are even pushing on this by recycling, paying attention to their carbon footprint, planting trees, going organic, etc. Today in society they are taking Going Green to the extreme to save our planet.


  • strict system of racial segregation
  • established in 1948 through the passage of many laws and great governmental involvement
  • reserved best jobs for whites, denied blacks the right to vote, and made it illegal for minority groups to hold mass meeting
  • restricted growth of black African political parties
  • put in place by the Afrikaner National Party, an all-white party
  • primarily took place in South Africa

The Holocaust was a terrible happening that was formed out of prejudice and anger. It was created by Adolf Hitler, who fought in WWI, and because of the loss of the war, decided to go into politics, was elected as dictator of Germany, and trying to make Germany a better place, he ordered all the Jews, gypsies, crippled, mentally challenged people, and more to go into concentration camps where they were worked to death, tortured, and/or killed immediately. Twelve million people were killed during this genocide, and barely any survived.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand was born in 1863. He was the heir-apparent to the Austro Hungarian throne. On a visit to Sarajevo in Bosnia, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist, shot and killed the Archduke and his pregnant wife Sophie. After his death, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, which caused Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Triple Entente who were allied with Serbia to declare war on each other, starting World War I.

Fidel Castro

In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro (with help from Che Guevara) took control of Cuba by force and has remained its dictatorial leader for over four decades. As the leader of the only communist country in the Western Hemisphere, Castro has been the focus of international controversy.

Pat Benatar

Pat Benatar was born Patricia Mae Andrzejewski on January 10, 1953 in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York. Pat Benatar is a rock-and-roll superstar, a four-time Grammy winner with six platinum and four gold albums. Pat married Neil Giraldo in 1982, and in 1985 they became the parents of Haley Egeana. Pat still continued to record and tour until 1993 when she had to stop after the release of "Gravity's Rainbow" to give birth to her second daughter, Hanna Juliana. Pat and her husband Neil have toured every year since 1995, she has found a unique balance between her family and her career. even after twenty five years of performing, Pat Benatar and her band plan to continue performing.


** Blitzkrieg**

  • Also known as lighting war
  • This was the center of strategy and concept for the Germans
  • The element of a surprise warfare
  • they used the element of fire, machine guns, and artillery!!
  • They coordinated with massive aerial attacks with bombs, that is why they call it “lighting war.”
  • this led to the development of more powerful weapons when the war was over

The United Nations
The United Nations (U.N.) was founded in 1945 after WWII to replace the failed League of Nations. Its main goal is to prevent wars and to provide countries with a platform for discussion. There are currently 192 members, including almost every sovereign state in the world. It is made up of six principal organs: The General Assembly, The Security Council, The Economic and Social Council, The Secretariat, The International Court of Justice, and The United Nations Trusteeship Council. It has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

Adolf Hitler

One of the most famous names thought of when thinking of World War II is Adolf Hitler. He arose from post WWI anger and promised the people of Germany that he'd bring them out of economic depression. He started the National Socialist Party (Nazi). Throughout his rule he led a totalitarian state form of government. He used a secret police called the Gestapo to arrest political opponents. He led a genocide of Jews, which caused the death of over 6 million people.


Anne Frank
Anne Frank is one of the most renowned and most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust. She is acknowledged for the quality of her writing, her diary has become one of the world's most widely read books, and has been the basis for several plays and films. She was born in 1929 in Frankfurt am Main in Germany. In 1933, the anti-Jewish National Socialist Party was led by Hitler came to power. Her Jewish parents Edith and Otto Frank perceive that there is no future in Germany for themselves and their children. They fled to the Netherlands in 1933. Anne was 4 yrs old. Until she is eleven she grew up without a care in a relatively safer Holland. In 1940, the Netherlands is occupied by Germany and the protection that Holland provides comes to an end.
Beginning in 1942, the first Jews receive call-up notices to report for the so-called “work” camp Westerbork. People who refused resulted on being sent to a prison camp. Fleeing the Netherlands was almost impossible because neighboring countries were also occupied with Germany. To avoid deportation, Jews must arrange a hiding place with non-Jews. Such hiding places are difficult to find, but Anne's parents see the possibility of going into hiding in the annex of the building that houses Otto's business.Otto and Edith Frank protect Anne from the danger that threatens them for as long as possible. Only a few days before going into hiding, Anne's father tells her that they are not going to a camp but are going to hide from the Germans. They go into hiding on July 6, 1942. Even though Anne sees hiding as an exciting adventure in the beginning, soon enough the hiding place becomes too small for her restless character. For more than two years Anne Frank describes her daily life in hiding in writing. On August 4, 1944, the Secret Annex is raided by the Grüne Polizei (Security Police). Anne Frank and the seven others in hiding are arrested. They are then sent to concentration camps in Holland, Poland, and Germany. Of all those in hiding, only Otto Frank survives the camps. The eight residents of the Secret Annex are transported to Auschwitz on the last train leaving the transit camp Westerbork. After a month at Auschwitz, Anne Frank and her sister Margot were sent to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where thousands of people were dying of hunger and sickness everyday. Margot and Anne both contract typhus and die within a short time of each other in March 1945, only a few weeks before the liberation.
anne2.jpg tombstone.jpg

Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball was a revolutionary actress in her day. Instead of focusing on making herself look all pretty and playing the damsel in distress, she set her eyes to the comedy. On her show "I Love Lucy" she constantly made herself look like a fool for a good laugh. This is something other actresses of the time refused to do.

Che Guevera
Che Guevera was born in Rosario, Argentina on June 14th, 1928. He was not just a Marxist revolutionary, he was also a physician, diplomat and avid intellectual. Throughout his whole life, he had a deep concern for the poor of Latin America and this manifested itself in his words and actions. On his famous motorcycle journey (on which there is a book and a movie), he witnessed the afflictions of many Latin Americans that had a profound effect on his life. Upon meeting Raul and Fidel CAstro, he became fully involved in the Cuban Revolution. He was very impassioned by the mistreatment of anyone by their government, proclaiming at a December 1964 United Nations meeting in New York:
"Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men — how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?" Guevera was executed by Bolivian government on the night of October 9th, 1967. His influence on the world today is undeniable and many people across the globe continue to be fascinated with the man, many of them ironically displaying his face on a t shirt that is the product of capitalism.

Facism is a political philosophy that was started by Benito Mussolini in Italy in the early 1920s. Eventualy spreading to Germany several years later, facism attacks the "weakness" of democracy. While combating a corupted capitalist system, facism promised extremly vigorous foreign and military programs. Since it came about during the era of the Great Depression, facism undertook statewide control of the economy, reducing social and political friction. However, reforms such as these didn't stop the fact that it took a wheelbarrel of money to buy bread.


  • He was liked by educated people and masses, moderates, and radicals.
  • Ghandi was nonviolent
  • He got many people to join him in peacful boycotts, strikes, mass demonstartions and other revolts.
  • He was able to weaken the British control.
  • Ghandi was a western-educated lawyer.
  • He was Hindu ascetic/guru

Leopold Sedar Senghor
*A Senegalese poet writer
*During the negritude literacy movement, Senghor and two other writers celebrated the beauty of black skin and the African physique.
*The negritude literacy movement was creaated for combat against the racial stereotyping that had so long held the Africans in phsychological bondage to the Europeans.

The industrial revolution was a period in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in England. Advances in agricultural techniques and practices resulted in an increased supply of food and raw materials, changes in industrial organization and new technology resulted in increased production, efficiency and profits, and the increase in commerce, foreign and domestic, were all conditions which promoted the advent of the Industrial Revolution.
Marxism was created and established by Karl Marx. He believed that “the world holds only matter, and the way humans that respond to material needs is all that really matters” Unfortunately, many have followed Karl Marx because of his materialistic viewpoints and the rise of Communism. He wrote many books about this belief he had but the most famous was called the Communist Manifesto. This book explained what Marxism was and how the people could get in on it. Marxism, in my opinion, led many people in the wrong direction.


on September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked. It is still unclear who is to blame for it, but 48% of people say that the attack was initiated by a man named al Qaeda. The plan of the attack was to hijack 4 planes and then to have one of them fly into the white house. This plan did not go as planned and instead, at 8:45 a.m., the first plane crashed into the north Twin Tower. About 20 minutes later, at 9:03 a.m., the second plane crashed into the south Twin tower. All of the passengers and crew on board both planes died as well as many people in and working in the World Trade Centers. The conditions inside the buildings were so bad that people in them started to jump out of the buildings because they had almost no other hope of getting out of the building that they were in alive. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon at 9:43 a.m. and at 10:10 the fourth and final flight hijacked crashed in Somerset Country, Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh. In all, a reported 2,998 people died of this attack. For the first time in U.S. history, all airports in the United Stated were closed down and all flights were canceled. President Bush declared this "an apparent terrorist attack" at 9:30 a.m. in Sarasota, Florida.

mt.(ummmmm… wait how do you spell that??)
British authorities have ordered the country's airspace closed due to a cloud of ash drifting from the erupting, unpernounsable, Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. The volcano has erupted for the second time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam into the air and forcing hundreds of people to run from flooding water. The volcanic ash has forced the stop of many flights and messed up air traffic across northern Europe, making thousands of people to be a stand still. Here is a photo of a recent eruption.

Latin American Economy
The Latin American economy went through many struggles in the Modern Period. The economy became dependent on trade with Britain. Before 1850, the British became mass consumers of Latin American products. In return, Britian sold about five million pounds worth of their own manufactured goods to new nations each year. Britain became the country that traded the most with Latin America. Trade with Britain was crucial for Latin America. The flowing in of foreign goods benefited the port cities in Latin America because they depended on foreign imports. Without Britiain's help, Latin America would have struggled more.

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